Monumentalism is a visual study of ideological architecture and design. Every photograph on this site was taken by Darmon Richter, a British researcher who has spent the last decade exploring the post-communist world with his camera. To use any of these images, please get in touch.

Read more about this project here; find in-depth essays about many of these locations on Ex Utopia; or join one of Darmon’s tours to see these places for yourself.

Follow on Twitter or Instagram for updates.


Since 2015, Darmon has designed and led tours to sites of communist-era architectural heritage in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Ukraine, Moldova, and the unrecognised republic of Transnistria.

Find out more about upcoming departures at Ex Utopia / Tours.


In 2020, Darmon authored his debut book, Chernobyl: A Stalkers’ Guide. Find out more about it here.

Latest Uploads
Country Location Name Type
Abkhazia Bzipi Memorial to the Fallen in the Great Patriotic War Monument
Abkhazia Bzipi Memorial to the Victims of the War 1992-1993 Monument
Abkhazia Gagra Beach Furniture Design
Abkhazia Gagra Gagarin Shopping Centre Building
Abkhazia Gagra Hotel Chegem Building
Abkhazia Gagra Monument to the Fallen in the Great Patriotic War Monument
Abkhazia Gagra Sana Sanatorium Building
Abkhazia Novy Afon Bus Stop Design
Abkhazia Novy Afon Cafe Lebed Building
Abkhazia Pitsunda Bus Stop Design
Abkhazia Pitsunda The Pearl Divers Monument
Abkhazia Pitsunda Theatre Decoration Public Art
Abkhazia Sukhum Amra Pier Building
Abkhazia Sukhum Brigantina Mosaic Public Art
Abkhazia Sukhum Monument to Ephraim Ashba Monument
Abkhazia Tamishi Monument to the Fallen in the Battles for the Liberation of Abkhazia Monument
Albania Tirana National Historical Museum Building, Public Art
Albania Tirana Pyramid of Tirana Building
Armenia Alaverdi Monument to Artem Mikoyan Monument
Armenia Aparan Monument to the Heroic Battle in Aparan Monument
Armenia Araks Sardarapat Heroic Memorial Complex Monument
Armenia Goris Gates of Goris Monument
Armenia Gyumri Iron Fountain Design
Armenia Gyumri Monument to Mother Armenia Monument
Armenia Musaler Monument to the Heroic Battle of Musa Dagh Monument
Armenia Sardarapat Monument to WWII Victims Monument
Armenia Stepanavan Monument to Stepan Shahumian Monument
Armenia Stepanavan Stepan Shahumian Memorial Monument
Armenia Ujan Monument to the Seven Militiamen Monument
Armenia Ujan Mother Armenia Statue Monument
Armenia Vanadzor Monument to Victims of the Great Patriotic War Monument
Armenia Yaghdan Monument to the Great Patriotic War Monument
Armenia Yerevan Armenian Genocide Memorial Monument
Armenia Yerevan Monument of Gratitude from the Armenian People to the Arab People Monument
Armenia Yerevan Mother Armenia Monument Monument
Armenia Yerevan Nor Arabkir Monument Monument
Armenia Yerevan Residential Blocks Building
Armenia Yerevan Yerevan Cascade Design
Armenia Yerevan Yerevan City Sign Design
Armenia Yerevan Zvartnots Airport: Terminal 1 Building Building
Azerbaijan Baku Monument to Hazi Aslanov Monument
Azerbaijan Baku Monument to Richard Sorge Monument
Azerbaijan Baku Mosaic Park Public Art
Azerbaijan Baku Monument to the Victims of the Great Patriotic War Monument
Azerbaijan Sumqayit Monument to Uzeyir Hajibeyov Monument
Azerbaijan Sumqayit Peace Monument Monument
Belarus Brest Brest Hero-Fortress (‘Courage’ Monument) Monument
Belarus Khatyn Khatyn Memorial Complex Monument
Belarus Minsk Academy of Public Administration Building
Belarus Minsk BelExpo Pavilion of International Events Building
Belarus Minsk Cinema Moskva Building
Belarus Minsk Cinema Oktyabr Building
Belarus Minsk Cosmonaut Art Public Art
Belarus Minsk Faculty of Architecture and Construction at the Belarusian National Technical University Building
Belarus Minsk Hero-City Building Building
Belarus Minsk Hotel Belarus Building
Belarus Minsk Island of Tears Memorial Monument
Belarus Minsk Lenin Square Building
Belarus Minsk Minsk Hero-City Obelisk at the Great Patriotic War Museum Monument
Belarus Minsk Mound of Glory Monument
Belarus Minsk National Library of Belarus Building
Belarus Minsk Palace of Sports Building
Belarus Minsk Red Army Art Public Art
Belarus Minsk Residential Blocks Building
Belarus Minsk Solidarity Public Art
Bosnia & Herzegovina Banja Luka Banj Brdo Memorial Ossuary Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Banja Luka Cathedral of Saint Bonaventure Building
Bosnia & Herzegovina Bihać Memorial Park Garavice Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Grmeč Korčanica Memorial Park Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Kozara Monument to the Revolution Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Miljevina Motel Miljevina Building
Bosnia & Herzegovina Mostar Fountain Design
Bosnia & Herzegovina Mostar Mostar Partisan Cemetery Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Sanski Most Šušnjar Memorial Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Sarajevo BHRT (Bosnia & Herzegovina Radio & Television) Building Building
Bosnia & Herzegovina Sarajevo Olympic Podium Design
Bosnia & Herzegovina Tjentište Monument to the Battle of Sutjeska Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Tjentište Tjentište Memorial House Building, Monument
Bosnia & Herzegovina Zenica Monument to the Fallen Partisan Detachment from Zenica Monument
Bulgaria Antonovo Monument to the Soviet Army Monument
Bulgaria Antonovo Monument to the Victims in the Antifascist Struggle Monument
Bulgaria Balvan Monument to the Battle of Balvan Monument
Bulgaria Bansko Key Monument Monument
Bulgaria Batulia Monument to the Antifascists Monument
Bulgaria Beklemeto Arch of Liberty Monument
Bulgaria Belene National Insurance Institute Mural Public Art
Bulgaria Bezhovo Monument to Communities Monument
Bulgaria Blagoevgrad Monument to the Fighters of Macedonia & Thrace Monument
Bulgaria Burgas Pantheon to the Heroes in the Antifascist Struggle Monument
Bulgaria Buzludzha Buzludzha Memorial House Building, Monument
Bulgaria Buzludzha Monument to the Road Brigade Monument
Bulgaria Chargan Monument to the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship Monument
Bulgaria Dobrich Monument to Khan Asparuh Monument
Bulgaria Dobrich Monument to the Dead in the Fatherland War Monument
Bulgaria Dryanovo Monument to Soviet Cosmonautics Monument
Bulgaria Gurgulyat Pantheon to the Heroes in the Serbo-Bulgarian War Monument
Bulgaria Kavarna Monument to Prosperity Monument
Bulgaria Klisura Monument to Borimechkata Monument
Bulgaria Kotel Monument to Tsar Ivaylo Monument
Bulgaria Krân Monument to Dimitâr Blagoev Monument
Bulgaria Kyosevtsi Unfinished Petrol Station Building
Bulgaria Lakatnik Monument to the September Uprising Monument
Bulgaria Lovech Monument to the Liberators Monument
Bulgaria Lukovit Freedom Sculpture Monument
Bulgaria Maglizh WWII Memorial Monument
Bulgaria Ognyanovo Soldier Memorial Monument
Bulgaria Panicharevo Flame Monument Monument
Bulgaria Pazardzhik Monument to the September Uprising Monument
Bulgaria Perushtitsa Monument to the Three Generations Monument
Bulgaria Pleven Pleven Art Gallery Building
Bulgaria Pleven Monument to the Battle of Pleven Monument
Bulgaria Pleven Pleven Panorama Building, Monument
Bulgaria Plovdiv Fraternal Barrow Memorial Complex Monument
Bulgaria Plovdiv Hotel Mosaic Public Art
Bulgaria Plovdiv Plovdiv Library Building
Bulgaria Plovdiv Ritual Hall Building
Bulgaria Razgrad Pantheon of Immortality Monument
Bulgaria Ruse Lenin Monument Monument
Bulgaria Ruse Stairwell Design
Bulgaria Shiroka Luka Lute Player Monument
Bulgaria Shumen Monument to Freedom Monument
Bulgaria Shumen Monument to the Founders of the Bulgarian State Monument
Bulgaria Shumen Monument to the Red Army Monument
Bulgaria Shumen Monument to the Students Monument
Bulgaria Silistra Bus Station Building
Bulgaria Silistra Monument to Dimitâr Donchev Monument
Bulgaria Skravena Mausoleum of Hristo Botev’s Detachment Monument
Bulgaria Smolyan Bench Design
Bulgaria Sofia Hotel Rila Building
Bulgaria Sofia Monument to 1,300 Years of Bulgaria Monument
Bulgaria Sofia Monument to the Partisans Monument
Bulgaria Sofia Monument to the Soviet Army Monument
Bulgaria Sofia Pedestrian Underpass Design
Bulgaria Sofia Worker Monument Monument
Bulgaria Sredni Kolibi Abstract Sculpture Public Art
Bulgaria Stara Zagora Defenders of Stara Zagora Memorial Complex Monument
Bulgaria Svishtov Monument to the Liberation Monument
Bulgaria Târgovishte Monument to Khan Krum Monument
Bulgaria Târgovishte Monument to the Bulgarian-Russian Friendship Monument
Bulgaria Tryavna Monument to the Dead Partisans Monument
Bulgaria Varna Monument to the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship Monument
Bulgaria Varna Hotel Cherno More Building
Bulgaria Veliko Târnovo Factory Mural Public Art
Bulgaria Veliko Târnovo InterHotel Veliko Târnovo Building
Bulgaria Veliko Târnovo Metal Relief Public Art
Bulgaria Yoakim Gruevo Kiosk Design
Bulgaria Yoakim Gruevo Fertility Statue Monument
Bulgaria Zimnitsa Shepherd Monument Monument
China Qingdao Qingdao Observatory Building
Croatia Dubrovnik OTP Banka Building Building
Croatia Jasenovac Jasenovac Memorial Site (‘Stone Flower’ Monument) Monument
Croatia Petrova Gora Monument to the Uprising of the People of Kordun and Banija Monument
Croatia Podgarić Monument to the Revolution of the People of Moslavina Monument
Croatia Sisak Monument to the Detachment in Brezovica Forest Monument
Croatia Vukovar Dudik Memorial Park Monument
Croatia Zagreb Rakete (The Rockets) Building
Croatia Zagreb Zagrepčanka Building Building
Croatia Zagreb Zagreb TV Tower Building
Cuba Havana Edificio FOCSA Building
Cuba Havana Edificio Girón Building
Cuba Havana Soviet Embassy Building
Cuba Playa Girón Memorial to the Martyrs of Playa Girón Monument
Cuba Playa Girón Museo Girón Design
Cuba Santa Clara Armoured Train Memorial Monument
Cuba Santa Clara Che Guevara Mural Public Art
Cuba Santa Clara Monument to Che Guevara Monument
Czechia Prague Hotel InterContinental Building
Czechia Prague Národní Třída Metro Design
Czechia Prague StB Headquarters Building
Estonia Narva Residential Block Building
Estonia Rakvere Tarvanpää Memorial Monument
Estonia Tallinn Linnahall Building
Estonia Tallinn Maarjamäe Memorial Monument
Estonia Tartu Memorial to the Victims of the Great Patriotic War Monument
Georgia Chiatura Bus Stop Design
Georgia Chiatura WWII Memorial Monument
Georgia Chokhatauri WWII Memorial Monument
Georgia Gori Monument to the Georgian Warrior Heroes Monument
Georgia Gori Victory Monument Monument
Georgia Gudauri Monument to the Treaty of Georgievsk (Russian-Georgian Friendship Monument) Monument
Georgia Kutaisi Glory to Labour Monument Monument
Georgia Marabda Monument to the Nine Kherkheulidze Brothers Monument
Georgia Marneuli Monument to the Heroes of the Great Patriotic War Monument
Georgia Nagomari Monument to the Victims of the Georgian Civil War Monument
Georgia Poti Monument to Grigori Kokaia Monument
Georgia Poti Monument to the Hero Sailors Monument
Georgia Rukhi WWII Memorial Monument
Georgia Tbilisi Archaeology Museum Building
Georgia Tbilisi Fire Station Memorial Public Art
Georgia Tbilisi Fire Station Relief Public Art
Georgia Tbilisi Mother Georgia Monument
Georgia Tbilisi Memorial of Glory Monument
Georgia Tbilisi Ministry of Roads Building
Georgia Tbilisi Monument to Saint Nino Monument
Georgia Tbilisi Tbilisi Mosaic Public Art
Georgia Tbilisi Palace of Rituals Building
Georgia Tbilisi The Tiger and the Knight Monument
Georgia Tskhvarichamia Monument to the Young Pioneers Monument
Georgia Tskhvarichamia Theater Mosaic Public Art
Georgia Zemo Mleta Unknown Monument Monument
Georgia Zestafoni Monument to the Factory Founder Monument
Georgia Zugdidi Bus Stop Design
Kosovo Brezovica Monument to the Šarplaninska Partisan Detachment Monument
Kosovo Mitrovica Monument to the Fallen Miners Monument
Kosovo Pristina National Library of Kosovo Building
Kosovo Pristina Palace of Youth and Sports Building
Latvia Daugavpils Monument to the Latvian Red Riflemen Monument
Latvia Jurmala Train Station Building
Latvia Jurmala Baltic Beach Hotel Building
Latvia Liepāja Monument to the Sailors and Fishermen Lost at Sea Monument
Latvia Riga Diesel Engine Factory Building
Latvia Riga Dailes teātris (Theater of Arts) Building
Latvia Riga Victory Memorial to the Soviet Army Monument
Latvia Salaspils Salaspils Memorial Park Monument
Latvia Skrunda-1 Lenin Mosaic Public Art
Latvia Valka Monument to the Revolutionaries of 1905 and 1917 Monument
Lithuania Druskininkai Hotel Pušynas Building
Lithuania Kaunas Ninth Fort Memorial Complex Monument
Lithuania Plokščiai Plokštinė Missile Base Building
Lithuania Vilnius Palace of Sports Building
Moldova Chisinau Chisinau State Circus Building
Moldova Chisinau Eternity Memorial Complex Monument
Moldova Chisinau Monument to the Fighters for State Soviet Power Monument
Montenegro Berane Monument to Freedom Monument
Montenegro Kolašin Monument to the Victims of Fascism Monument
Montenegro Nikšić House of Revolution Building
Montenegro Nikšić Monument to Fallen Soldiers Monument
Montenegro Podgorica Morača Sports Centre Building
Montenegro Podgorica RTCG (Radio-Television Crna Gora) Building Building
Nagorno-Karabakh Berdzor Monument to the Fallen Heroes of the Shushi Region Monument
Nagorno-Karabakh Berdzor Monument to the Liberators in the Artsakh War Monument
Nagorno-Karabakh Shusha Monument to the Great Patriotic War Monument
Nagorno-Karabakh Sotk Pass IFV Monument Monument
Nagorno-Karabakh Stepanakert Monument to the Fallen in the Great Patriotic War Monument
Nagorno Karabakh Stepanakert Palace of Culture and Youth Building
Nagorno-Karabakh Stepanakert We Are Our Mountains Monument
Nagorno-Karabakh Zabux Gates of Artsakh Monument
North Korea Pyongyang Arch of Reunification Monument
North Korea Pyongyang Juche Memorial Complex Monument
North Korea Pyongyang Monument to Party Founding Monument
North Korea Pyongyang Public Art Public Art
North Korea Pyongyang Ryugyong Hotel Building
North Macedonia Kavadarci Memorial Ossuary Monument
North Macedonia Kruševo Makedonium or ‘Ilinden Spomenik’ Building, Monument
North Macedonia Prilep Victory Monument Monument
North Macedonia Skopje Administrative Court Building
North Macedonia Skopje Central Register Building
North Macedonia Skopje Central Skopje Post Office Building
North Macedonia Skopje Hydrometeorological Service Building Building
North Macedonia Skopje Macedonian Academy of Sciences & Arts Building
North Macedonia Skopje MRT (Macedonian Radio-Television) Building Building
North Macedonia Skopje Saints Cyril and Methodius University Building
North Macedonia Skopje Skopje New Rail Station Building
North Macedonia Tetovo Residential Blocks Building
North Macedonia Veles Memorial Ossuary Building, Monument
Romania Bucharest Nation’s Heroes Memorial Monument
Romania Câmpina Casa Tineretului (Palace of Youth) Building
Romania Prahova County Water Tower Design
Romania Vidraru Dam Prometheus Monument Monument
Russia Monino Radar Station Building
Serbia Belgrade 25th May Museum Building
Serbia Belgrade Block 23 Building
Serbia Belgrade Eastern City Gate Building
Serbia Belgrade Hotel Jugoslavija Building
Serbia Belgrade Sava Centre Building
Serbia Belgrade SIV-1 (Savezno Izvršno Veće 1) or Palata Srbija (Palace of Serbia) Building
Serbia Belgrade Western City Gate or ‘Genex Tower’ Building
Serbia Čačak Mausoleum of Struggle and Victory Monument
Serbia Kadinjača Kadinjača Memorial Complex Monument
Serbia Kosmaj Monument to the Kosmaj Partisan Detachment Monument
Serbia Kragujevac Monument to the Murdered Students Monument
Serbia Niš Bubanj Memorial Park Monument
Serbia Ostra Monument to the Brave Monument
Serbia Popina Mausoleum to the Fallen Insurgents Against Fascism (‘Sniper’ Monument) Monument
Serbia Užice Hotel Zlatibor Building
Serbia Užice Monument to the Victims of the Explosion Monument
Slovenia Ljubljana Central Hotel Building
Transnistria Bendery Memorial to Victims of the Holocaust Monument
Transnistria Bendery Monument to Railway Workers Monument
Transnistria Tiraspol Monument to the First Moldovan Power Plant Monument
Transnistria Tiraspol Supreme Soviet Lenin Monument Building, Monument
Transnistria Tiraspol Tank Monument Monument
Ukraine Kiev Crematorium in the Park of Memory Building
Ukraine Kiev Institute of Scientific, Technical and Economic Information (The ‘Flying Saucer’) Building
Ukraine Kiev Motherland Monument Monument
Ukraine Kiev People’s Friendship Arch Monument
Ukraine Maryanivka Progress Farm Sign Design
Ukraine Novi Petrivtsi Lutezh Bridgehead Monument Monument
Ukraine Odessa Odessa Catacombs Relief Public Art
Ukraine Yaseniv War Memorial Monument
Ukraine Zhytomyr Russian 2nd Air Army Memorial Monument
Ukraine Zhitomyr Zhovten Cinema Building
Ukraine Zhitomyr Rivne Memorial to the Victims of Fascism Monument
Ukraine / Chernobyl Chernobyl Bus Stop Design
Ukraine / Chernobyl Pripyat Ferris Wheel Design
Ukraine / Chernobyl Chernobyl Wormwood Mural Public Art
Ukraine / Chernobyl Chernobyl NPP Bus Stop Design
Ukraine / Chernobyl Pripyat Post Office Mural Public Art
Ukraine / Chernobyl Pripyat Pripyat Town Sign Design